Monday, May 25, 2020

Alice s Adventures And The Strange Case Of Dr. Jekyll And...

The Victorian era has released some of the most well known books known to date. Based on their background and the time period they grew up, authors from the Victorian era had to mask their work within stories with characters who go on grand adventures or experiences a sense of freedom. This can be seen in two novels, Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland, written by Lewis Carroll, and The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, written by Robert Lewis Stevenson. The two books are a good representation of madness and how, in a way, the Victorian culture and expectation drove the main characters to go mad and their use of potions, pills and drugs. Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland, was a children’s book written by Lewis Carroll. The focus of†¦show more content†¦Whenever the queen is displeased it usually results in somebody getting their head cut off. This can be seen when Alice is put on trial in front of the queen and her court. The queens ruling results in Alice being guilty and becoming defiant to the queen. As a result the queen shouts, â€Å"off with her head!† (Carroll, 102). This represents Alice and her madness because as I stated earlier, this was all in Alice’s dream. Therefore the queen is a representation of what goes on in Alice’s head. She has that dark mental side to her nature. Another character that fall into madness is Dr. Jekyll from The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde. Dr. Jekyll is the representative of what the perfect Victorian man should act like. He has very high morals and conforms to society that way he does not get looked down upon. But on the flip side of that, he is human and has some flaws. Unlike Alice’s situation where we see her character slowly fall into madness, we are unaware that Dr. Jekyll is mad until the very end of the book when we discover that Mr. Hyde is Dr. Jekyll. Mr. Hyde represents Dr, Jekyll’s dark and mental side. He is a very violent character. According Mr. Utterson, Mr. Hyde is a very evil character and draws on the mental dark side of Dr. Jekyll. A couple of the characters make remarks about Mr. Hyde calling him evil and said they thought he was mad. Take for example, â€Å"I thought it was madness†¦.Show MoreRelatedAll Of Sarah Kane s Cleansed 2245 Words   |  9 Pagesof key themes that continuously surface throughout the text, such as love, sex, human nature and torture and suffering. These subjects are most likely the reason that Cleansed was categorised In-Yer-Face theatre . In fact, all of Sarah Kane s plays were classed as work that fell under the In-Yer-Face Theatre genre. This theatre style came about in the mid-90s and had a very short lifespan; it existed as a pre-9/11 genre. Since the events of 9/11, like the world we live in, theatre hasRead MoreThe Studio System Essay14396 Words   |  58 Pagescomplete control over design decisions, the personnel of the department, the assignment of tasks, and the attribution of credit. In the autocratic system that prevailed at MGM Gibbons had complete control. According to the director, Pandro S. Berman, He was the most influential person on the lot except for the owners, Nick Schenk in New York and Louis B. Mayer in Culver City (Affron 17). Gibbons was nominated for the Academy Award for Art Direction 40 times. He receivedRead MoreStephen P. Robbins Timothy A. Judge (2011) Organizational Behaviour 15th Edition New Jersey: Prentice Hall393164 Words   |  1573 Pagesand permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. To obtain permission(s) to use material from this work, please submit a written request to Pearson Education, Inc., Permissions Department, One Lake Street, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458, or you may fax your request to 201-236-3290. Many of the designations by manufacturers

Thursday, May 14, 2020

Definition and Examples of Disjuncts in English Grammar

In English grammar, a disjunct is a type of sentence adverb that comments on the content or manner of what is being said or written. Put another way, a disjunct is a word or phrase that explicitly expresses the stance of a speaker or writer. Also called a sentence adjunct or sentence modifier. Unlike adjuncts, which are  integrated into the structure of a sentence or clause, disjuncts stand outside the syntactic structure of the text they are commenting on. In effect, says David Crystal, disjuncts look down from above on a clause, making a judgment about what it is saying or how it is phrased (Making Sense of Grammar, 2004). As explained below, the two basic types of disjuncts are content disjuncts (also known as attitudinal disjuncts) and style disjuncts.   The term disjunct is sometimes also applied to any of  two or more items connected by the disjunctive conjunction or. Etymology: From the Latin, to separate Examples and Observations Without a doubt, one of the  most popular and influential television shows  from the 1960s is the original  Star Trek  series, created by Gene Roddenberry.(Kenneth Bachor, Five  Things You Probably Didn’t Know About the Original  Star Trek. Time,  September 8, 2016)Strangely enough, they have a mind to till the soil, and the love of possessions is a disease in them.(Sitting Bull, Powder River Council Speech, 1875)â€Å"As weve discussed, the information you brought us has been, shall we say, a bit thin.  To be perfectly candid, my government feels as if were being played.†(Jeffrey S. Stephens, Targets of Opportunity, 2006)But sadly, one of the problems with being on public radio is that people tend to think youre being sincere all the time.(Ira Glass, quoted by Ana Marie Cox and Joanna Dionis in Mother Jones, September-October, 1998)Regrettably, the book is no longer in print, but copies can be found in libraries and secondhand bookshops.â€Å"Well, cou ld you sleep? the Count asked the next night upon his arrival in the cage.â€Å"Quite honestly, no, Westley replied in his normal voice.(William Goldman, The Princess Bride, 1973)Hopefully, the book will inspire readers to a wider interest in weather, atmospheric science, and earth science in general.(Keay Davidson, Twister. Pocket Books, 1996)Hopefully--and Other Commentary Disjuncts- Its time to admit that hopefully has joined that class of introductory words (like fortunately, frankly, happily, honestly, sadly, seriously, and others) that we use not to describe a verb, which is what adverbs usually do, but to describe our attitude toward the statement that follows. . . . But be aware that some sticklers still take a narrow view of hopefully. Will they ever join the crowd? One can only hope.(Patricia T. OConner, Woe Is I: The Grammarphobes Guide to Better English in Plain English, rev. ed. Riverhead Books, 2003)- Long before the controversial use of hopefully came along, it was p ossible to marshal words like happily, fortunately, foolishly, cleverly, in dual roles, as manner adverbs or disjuncts: He spent all his money foolishly or Foolishly, he spent all his money; He landed fortunately in a haystack or He landed in a haystack, fortunately; She did not weave all of the tapestry cleverly, Cleverly, she did not weave all of the tapestry. All the howling about hopefully, all the moralizing and execration, ignored the fact that a pattern of usage already existed, and that the hated word was merely taking up an available position. Other words of the same kind are currently being treated in the same way. One of them is regretfully, which is now being used as a commentary disjunct with the meaning It is to be regretted that . . . (Regretfully, we cannot serve early morning tea). This usage might be criticized on the grounds that we already have a perfectly adequate commentary disjunct in regrettably, and that there can be no good reason for pressing an impostor i nto service. Users, however, are stubbornly unanswerable to the gods of good reason.(Walter Nash, An Uncommon Tongue: The Uses and Resources of English. Routledge, 1992)Style Disjuncts and Content DisjunctsThere are two kinds of disjuncts: style disjuncts and content disjuncts. Style disjuncts express comments by speakers on the style or manner in which they are speaking: frankly as in Frankly, you have no chance of winning ( I am telling you this frankly); personally in Personally, Id have nothing to do with them; with respect in With respect, it is not up to you to decide; if I may say so in They are rather rude, if I may say so; because she told me so in She wont be there, because she told me so ( I know that because she told me so). Content disjuncts comment on the content of what is being said. The most common express degrees of certainty and doubt as to what is being said: perhaps in Perhaps you can help me; undoubtedly in Undoubtedly, she is the winner; obviously in Obviously , she has no wish to help us.(Sidney Greenbaum, Adverbial. The Oxford Companion to the English Language, ed. Tom McArthur, Oxford University Press, 1992)

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Edgar Allan Poe Signature of a Genius Essay - 868 Words

Writing is a mirror of ones personality. When we write, we reveal a part of ourselves. We reveal our mind. We reveal our thoughts. If it is possible to exist, then it is possible to write, because writing is thinking, and thoughts are existence. This especially holds true to the mind of Edgar Allan Poe, who through writing time and time again about his love and loss through both poetry and general prose, generates the story of his life. In these pieces, not only does he create original plots, but deep within the fabric of these plots springs a background world of Poes own life, deeper than any allegory he produces or any poem he completes. The dark corners of Poes mind are distinctly represented in his entire work body. Experiences,†¦show more content†¦It is very obvious what Poe wanted to convey in this poem. Poes wife, Virginia Clemm, contracted cholera at the time of the poems writing. It is widely believed that Poe is describing his wife in Annabel Lee. Virginia died of the disease later on, but the love the two shared, and perhaps still share today, remained. Furthermore, the general dreary twists and turns of Edgar Allan Poes life are directly involved in Poes stories, not just as details, but as fundamental inspiration set in stone. So is the case in his tragic story The Tell-Tale Heart written by Poe. The short story describes the murder of an old man at the hands of a younger man who was caring for him, his guilt after committing the deed, and finally his confession and the revealing of his insanity. How then does this mirror Poes physical life? It does by generalizing his life into a single short story. Poe never did go insane, but his life was filled with depressing events and Poe himself was depressed. Poes father left his family when Poe was two, his mother dying soon after. He was left with the Allan family, who brought him up well but he was somewhat of an outcast to the Allans. Poe was ridiculed in school and spent much of his li fe in poverty. The Tell-Tale Heart may not have much to do with any of that, but the depressing details of his life can beShow MoreRelatedEdgar Allan Poe Revlutionized Literature in the 19th Century665 Words   |  3 PagesEdgar Allan Poe revolutionized the literary world of the nineteenth century. Poe is a well-known author from the early 1800’s, who was part of the dark romanticism movement. While later in life he was a brilliant writer, Edgar Allan Poe faced many problems in his early life. Although Poe experienced death within his family at a young age, the hardships he encountered are thought to have influenced his dark writing style. These death inspired elements within Poe’s writing were ahead of their timeRead MoreAnalysis Of Edward Scissorhands, By Tim Burton1660 Words   |  7 Pagesas the Frankenstein Monster, in the similar way that we call people with disabilities Special. And then we have Vincent, a short stop-motion animation. The short film itself is an entertaining aspect of a suburban boy named Vincent who recites Edgar Ellen Poe and categorizes with Horror film star, Vincent Price. With similarities to Edward Scissorhands, the main character is a chance for Tim Burton to represent himself on the screen as a tortured boy, outsider and artist. I am going to discuss how

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Biggest Challenges Facing Cisco Systems

Question: Discuss about the Biggest Challenges Facing Cisco Systems. Answer: Introduction: Cisco Systems was founded in 1984 in California by a husband and wife team from Stanford University. The husband came up with a way of connecting two local area networks in the departments where he and his wife worked, which were 500 yards across campus. The company has acquired a number of companies and made several strategic partnerships that have catapulted it to one of the most successful companies in the world. Its first product was shipped in 1986 and was an AGS router. The company went public in 1990. It made its first acquisition in 1993. The company also launched Ethernet switch, which has over 25000 customers and 700000 installed all over the world (Cisco, 2017). Cisco is a multinational company as it produces different goods and services and supplies them to many companies. It has patents in different countries. However, the ownership remains in the host country, which is the USA. Cisco has fully-owned subsidiaries operating in other countries. Cisco has been able to do this in Asia and has made Singapore the headquarters and transferred advanced technology to them (Cisco, 2017). Cisco also has marketing superiority as a multinational and they have been able to be the world's best to network solutions provider. Cisco operates under high efficiency. They use high technology like cloud computing. Globalization of Business-Liberalism Theory The theory of liberalism sees globalization as the market-led expansion of modernization. Liberals emphasize why it is necessary to construct infrastructure in institutions to support globalization. This has led to technical standardization. Cisco Systems has standardized technology in all its Singapore branches. It has also enabled administrative harmonization. Cisco Systems has a very solid organization structure that has enabled this to happen (Pooja, 2014). There are also translation arrangements and the companys website can be translated to suit language needs. The supporters of this theory neglect the social forces that lie behind the creation of technological and institutional foundations. It is not a satisfaction to say that these developments are natural human drives that lead to economic growth and political liberalization (Pooja, 2014). There are structural authority disproportions in the promotion of globalization and shaping its course. Singapore is a strategic location for Cisco Systems in Asia as it has even located its Asian headquarters there. Economic factors in Singapore affect Ciscos Internationalization process. Singapores Strategic Location makes it convenient for Cisco Systems to access a very large market (Hawksford, 2017). The airport at Changi serves over 15 million passengers yearly. It has been classified as the best airport in the world for over 20 years. This provides businesses like Cisco Systems with easy access to all the major Asian markets. Singapore has a good business environment hence attracting a lot of companies and businesspersons. Cisco systems have therefore been able to set up business easily in Singapore and gain from the good business environment (Hawksford, 2017). Singapore has an outstanding tax system. The corporate and personal rates are low. The country follows a single tier tax policy (Ambashi, 2017). Due to this Cisco Systems is able to maximize profits, as taxes charged are reasonable. The country is a one-stop center for companies that seek to manage their Intellectual Property Assets. Singapore is a party to major intellectual property treaties like the world intellectual property organization and the Madrid protocol (Hawksford, 2017). Cisco Systems have been able to take advantage of this by registering their trademark and being able to protect their Intellectual Property. Singapore has ensured that its labor force is highly attractive and productive; Businesses are therefore able to get efficiency as they get excellent workers. This has enabled Cisco Systems to acquire a highly motivated and productive workforce (Hawksford, 2017). This has greatly contributed to the performance of the company, as the workforce is highly skilled hence, processes run smoothly and effectively Porters Diamond Theory applied to Cisco Systems The Porter Diamond Theory is designed to help us get an understanding of competitive advantage that nations possess because of the factors that are available to them. It also explains how governments are able to act as catalysts to improve the position of a country in a globally competitive environment. The theory gives suggestions that a country can create factor advantages for itself such as having skilled labour, having strong technology industry and ensuring support of the government in the economy (Macklon, 2015). The theory is represented by a figure that resembles four diamond points. These points are related determinants, which are theorized as deciding factors of a countrys comparative economic benefits (Macklin, 2015). These factors include; the strategy of a firm, structure and rivalry, supporting industries, demand and factor conditions. The strategy of the firm, its structure and rivalry refer to the aspect that competition results in companies that strive in getting ways to add production and to come up with technological innovations. Competition has made Cisco come up with great technological innovations that have given it a technological advantage (Macklon, 2015). The company has come up with cloud solutions, Internet of things and software defined networking. Related supporting industries in the model give reference to companies that facilitate innovation through exchanging ideas with companies in the same industry Cisco Systems has been able to innovate through exchanging ideas with companies like UBS (Macklon, 2015). In March 2017, UBS and Cisco to hosted a tech talk on Internet of Things and applications. The company also formed a partnership with The Infocomm Development Authority of Singapore. Demand conditions refer to the characteristics of the customer base in terms of products and this enables innovation and improvement on products (Macklon, 2015). Cisco Systems has been able to achieve this by coming up with products that fit into customer needs and trends. Foreign companies can use various strategies to enter into foreign markets. Firms can export indirectly by using domestic agents in those countries who will be paid commissions to sell products or services (Chand, 2014). They can also employ the distribution services of companies that already exist in the respective markets and have established distribution systems. The company can do direct exportation of products or services. The company will have to do marketing analysis, establish contracts, handles supply-chain issues and documentation (CaligiuriBonache, 2016). The company assigns distributors based in the country as they have the necessary resources. In Licensing, a foreign licensor gives a local licensee with access to the entire infrastructure that the company needs in exchange for compensation. The firm licensed is given exclusive rights for producing and marketing a product or service for a certain period. The licensor gets a royalty on the product or service sale (Jain Singal, 2014). This method is advantageous as the firm is able to enter a new market without too many investments. Franchising can occur via product/ trade name or business format. It involves a licensing agreement where services offered by the franchise are replicated in the foreign country through a franchise (Zhao, ParkZhou, 2014).A joint venture is when the multi-national enters into an agreement with a local company in the target country. It can either be contractual or equity. In a contractual agreement, the two companies get into a partnership to share the cost of investment, any risk factors and profits. An equity venture involves the formation of a very separate entity and the local and multinational company share ownership and control. This may happen due to complex legal procedures in the foreign country and it greatly reduces the risk for the multi-national company (MarinorMarinora, 2014). The advantage of this is that the local company knows the market well and regulations. Direct investment involves a firm entering the foreign market through investing in a manufacturing facility. The company has to commit capital and management and can acquire an already existing foreign facility or build a completely new one (Chand, 2014). Direct investment is the best option but very risky as in case the venture does not succeed the company loses many funds. How Cisco Entered Singapore Market Cisco entered the Singapore market through direct investment in 1994 through its wholly owned subsidiaries, Cisco Systems International B.V. and Cisco International Limited that distribute its products. They have introduced leading technologies over the years and have transformed how the citizens work and learn. It created Singapores first internet home in the year 2000.The company also developed strategic partnerships. They collaborated with 15 schools through Cisco networking Academy and trained over 46000 students (Cisco, 2013). The company also opened new regional headquarters in Singapore in 2014.The office is located in the vibrant Changi Business Park and houses over 1000 employees. The second one is through joint ventures. Cisco formed an alliance with Singtel in 2001 to market and develop advanced technological services for the region. This was the first strategic partnership between a local carrier and an equipment vendor. The companies marketed products and services together to key customer accounts. This brought several telecommunications services to Singapore, for example, the companies developed IP and Virtual Private Networks together, DSL technology was introduced and new networks that integrated voice, data and video (Cisco,2013). The companies also carried out an exchange program where they briefed each other on product and technological directions. The Engineers working for SingTel were also able to gain work experience in Ciscos technical assistance centers. This venture was key to Cisco as SingTel had a large presence in more than 19 countries in the Asian region. (Singapore business review, 2013). International Business Challenges Faced by Cisco Systems Cisco Systems faces various challenges when doing International Business. The first risk faced by Cisco Systems is a political risk. This can include challenges in regulatory programs. Governments keep changing laws and this can greatly affect business (Verbeke, KanoYuan, 2016). Another business challenge is financial limitations. The economic environment keeps changing hence affecting revenues (Delventhal, 2017). Already there is a prediction in falls on revenues for 2017.The orders from service providers have slumped and there is a decline in the traditional switching market. Another challenge being faced by Cisco is competitive concerns. It faces the competition of switches and routers. The company has however been losing customers to rivals like Huawei Technologies. Their market for switching has gone down from 58% to 56.8% and the router market went down from 48.8% to 44.8%.This is a great concern as in previous years routers and switchers have accounted for half of its revenue (Sun,2016). The company also faces technological challenges. There is a rise in cloud networking that relies mostly on software. These are cost-efficient than the ones that were based on hardware. Cisco still sells traditional equipment and this has hurt demand. The company has been overtaken by Arista Networks who achieved a double-digit growth due to the sale of software cloud networking (Sun, 2016). Cisco then placed a lawsuit on Arista to slow them down and resulting in them being banned from importing some products. Cisco Systems need to incorporate the global compact principle and sustainable development goals into their strategies so that they uphold their responsibility to people and the environment to enable long-term success. The first principle states that companies must support and respect human rights protection. Cisco Systems must ensure that it respects the human rights of its employees and the society as a whole. The second Principle is making sure that the company does not take part in human rights abuses (Unglobalcompact, 2015). Cisco must ensure that all employees have rights and they should not also partner with any company that abuses human rights as this will lead to reputational risk and affects business negatively. The third principle advice companies to uphold freedom of association and recognize the right to collective bargaining. Cisco Systems must ensure that it allows its staff to join unions and that they representation by unions. The fourth principle speaks about the elimination of any forced labor (Unglobalcompact, 2015). Cisco Systems must not engage in any forced Labour. The fifth principle talks about child labor being abolished. The company should not engage in any form of child labor. The sixth principle advocates for eliminating discrimination in respect to employment or occupation. Cisco systems must ensure that it develops a corporate culture that brings all stakeholders together and does not discriminate in any way. The seventh principle speaks about companies taking a precautionary approach to any challenges faced in the environment (Unglobalcompact, 2015). Cisco Systems must approach such challenges in a professional manner and should ensure that its business does not harm the environment and they should have responsible recycling or disposal methods. Principle number eight speaks about companies undertaking initiatives to improve greater environmental responsibility. Employees at Cisco should, therefore, be educated on this and the company should generally be responsible towards the environment. The ninth principle encourages environmental friendly technologies. When expanding and applying technology to its business, they have to ensure that, they are not harming the environment (Unglobalcompact, 2015). The tenth principle advocates for companies to work against corruption. Cisco systems must ensure integrity among employees and when dealing with customers. The company must maintain a high integrity. Under the sustainable development goals, Cisco Systems will also have to apply some principles to its business. Under the Poverty goal, it states that companies should respect the rights of its workers and apply innovation to provide solutions to eradicate poverty (Unglobalcompact, 2015). Cisco Systems can implement this by ensuring they serve communities affected by poverty well through coming up with products and services that serve them. Another sustainability goal is Gender Equality. Companies are encouraged to empower women. Cisco Systems gives equal opportunities to both men and women. Affordable and clean energy should also be a key priority for businesses. Cisco System should be responsible in terms of any remittances (Unglobalcompact, 2015). Decent work and economic growth is another goal. Cisco Systems should provide its employees with decent work and ensure Singapores economic growth through its business activities. The company also has various green initiatives. Responsible Production and consumption by companies are key (Unglobalcompact, 2015). Cisco Systems has a power down system and phones are switched off after working hours and over the weekends. There is minimal paper wastage. Another SDG is Climate Action. Companies must ensure responsibility in greenhouse emissions as it greatly affects the climate. Cisco Systems must strive to ensure that it implements solutions so climate change (Unglobalcompact, 2015). Life below water and Life on Land should also be cared for. Cisco systems must ensure that nothing is done to harm these lives. References Ambashi, M. (2017). ASEAN as an FDI Attractor: How Do Multinationals Look at ASEAN? Caligiuri, P., Bonache, J. (2016). Evolving and enduring challenges in global mobility. Journal of World Business, 51(1), 127-141. Chand, S. (2014).How Multinational Corporations enter Into a Foreign Market. Retrieved 22 February 2014 from Cisco (2013). Cisco Celebrates 20 years in Singapore and Opens New Regional Headquarters. Retrieved 18 April 2013 from Delventhal, S. (2017). The Challenge Facing Cisco in 2017. Retrieved 4 January 2017 from Hawksford (2017).Why Chose Singapore? Retrieved 2017, N.d. from, Jain, A. K., Singal, A. K. (2014). Mapping vulnerability: how emerging markets respond to multinationals. Journal of Business Strategy, 35(6), 41-48. Macklon, M. (2015). Porter Diamond. Retrieved 29 July 2015 from, Marinov, M., Marinova, S. (2013). Emerging Economy Multinationals: Successes and Challenges (p. 1). Palgrave Macmillan. Pooja (2014). Eight Theories of Globalization. Retrieved 17th November 2014, from Singapore business review (2013).Cisco opens New Regional Headquarters in Singapore. Retrieved 17 April 2013 from, Sun, L (2016).The Three Biggest Challenges Facing Cisco Systems. Retrieved 18 October 2016 from, Unglobalcompact (2015). Partnerships: A Key Way to Implement the Sustainable Development Goals. Retrieved 6 June 2015 from, Verbeke, A., Kano, L., Yuan, W. (2016). Inside the regional multinationals: A new value chain perspective on subsidiary capabilities. International Business Review, 25(3), 785-793. Zhao, M., Park, S. H., Zhou, N. (2014). MNC strategy and social adaptation in emerging markets. Journal of International Business Studies, 45(7), 842-861.

Friday, April 10, 2020

Class V. Caste System Essays - Indian Caste System, Discrimination

Class V. Caste System A Class vs. a Caste System In any countrys history, a high stage of social development is reached only when the main social divisions are formed. The caste system penetrates the Hindu society to a level unknown elsewhere. It plays some part in other civilizations but in India it has invaded the whole. It is in this sense that we may speak of the caste system as a phenomenon peculiar to India (Pocock 27). The class system of the United States and the caste system of India share common characteristics but, at the same time, they different in many ways. A caste system rigidly restricted occupationally, socially, members may not marry outside the caste. Caste system devalues and discriminates people according to their genetic and/or social background. There are said to be four major traits typical of caste systems. Included are the following: membership into the caste is hereditary; marriage within the caste is mandatory; mobility is nearly impossible; occupation is strongly related to caste (Hurst, 1998). Conversely, a class system is a society based upon different groups. These groups are composed of people whose stratas are often related to occupational or property divisions. They are composed of a set of consistent and stable patterns that persist through time. In the United States it is based upon a classification of individuals who are grouped into power levels which represent the structural inequality in the allocation of rewards, privileges, and resources. These levels are often referred to as the upper, middle. And lower classes. They largely determine life chances in relating directly to the incomes and educational composition of each individual class (Davis 65-72). One of the strongest and most complex examples of the caste system can be found in Hindu India, where a hierarchy of thousands of distinct castes reflect religious practice, occupation, locale, culture status, or tribal affiliation. In addition, their society is divided into four social classes: -the Brahmans, priests and scholars; Kshatriyas, the military and rulers; Vaisyas, farmers and merchants; and Sudras, peasants and laborers. Below the Sudras were the untouchables, who performed the most menial tasks. The Untouchables are often regarded as the polluters include peoples whose occupations are those such as hairdressers, janitors, tanners, butchers, and undertakers. They were given this title because they make contact with such pollutants as blood, dirt, dung, hair, leather, menstrual flow, saliva etc. Popularly known in the past as pariahs, the politically correct terms now used are Dalits (the oppressed) and/or Harijans (Children of God), a term introduced by Mahatma Gandhi. A lthough caste segregation is officially illegal, it is very prevalent in India (Singh 9-19). An open system is a society in which people can change their economic, prestigious and power status easily. In contrast, a closed system is society in which people face great difficulty in changing these statuses. One should keep in mind that no society is completely open or closed, in fact, all societies have at least one or more characteristics of both closed and open systems. The United States is a good example of a relatively open system. This is because the US is founded upon the assumption that each person is given the equal opportunity to achieve that maximum level of success at the highest level of the class system. America is based on the belief that this achievement can be reached through competence, contribution to the community and society and through diligence and hard work. Unfortunately, this ideal is often discounted when stereotypes assigned to people on the basis of gender, age, and race come into play. In lieu of this many sociologists often view the United States society as a very closed system because of the high degree racial inequality. Similarly, a Hindu caste system is a good example of a closed system. Although the caste system in India was far more closed before 1900, India still suffers similarly in rural areas. People in India have traditionally inherited their status at birth from their parents. As a matter of course, it is uncommon for this status to change through the course of their life. Unlike in the United States, personal merit and diligence go without reward. It seems that no matter how

Monday, March 9, 2020

Armenian Genocide Essays - Armenian Genocide, Anti-Armenianism

Armenian Genocide Essays - Armenian Genocide, Anti-Armenianism Armenian Genocide Why was the Armenian Genocide Forgotten? GENOCIDE By definition genocide is the organized killing of a people for the express purpose of putting an end to their collective existence (Websters dictionary). As a rule, the organizing agent is the nation, the victim population is a domestic minority, and the end result is the near total death of a society. The Armenian genocide generally conforms to this simple definition. FORGOTTEN The Armenian genocide is a hidden, almost lost part of world history, pretty much eclipsed by the more publicized genocide of the twentieth century, the Holocaust. The question is why. I could take a poll of this room and I am willing to bet that 95% of the students have ever even heard of the Armenian Genocide and those who have couldnt tell me more than a couple sentences about it. This is pretty scary, considering the statistics of the Armenian Genocide. OTTOMAN EMPIRE The Ottoman Empire was ruled by the Turks who had conquered the land from across West Asia, North Africa to Southeast Europe. The Ottoman government was based in Istanbul and was headed by a sultan who was given absolute power. The Turks were Islamic and were a harsh disciplinary civilization. The Armenians, a Christian minority, lived as second class citizens subject to legal restrictions (Graber 119). These restrictions denied them normal safeguards. Neither their lives nor their properties were guaranteed security. As non-Muslims they were also obligated to pay discriminatory taxes and denied participation in government. In its prime of the sixteenth century the Ottoman Empire was a powerful state. Its minority populations really benefited with the growth of its economy, but by the nineteenth century, the empire was in serious decline(Graber 121). It had been reduced in size and by 1914 had lost virtually all its lands in Europe and Africa. This decline created enormous internal political and economic pressures which contributed to the increasing tensions among the races (similar to Germanys way of blaming the Jews for their economic decline). Armenian aspirations for representation and participation in government worried the Muslim Turks who had never shared power in their country with any minority. Demands by Armenian political organizations for administrative reforms in the Armenian-inhabited provinces and better police protection only invited further repression. During the reign of the sultan Abdul Hamid, a series of massacres throughout the empire meant to dampen Armenian expectations by frightening them, cost up to three hundred thousand lives by some estimates and resulted in enormous material losses on a majority of Armenians. In response to the crisis in the Ottoman Empire, a new political group called the Young Turks seized power by revolution in 1908. From the Young Turks, the Committee of Union and Progress (CUP) emerged at the head of the government in a coup staged in 1913. It was led by a triumvirate: Enver, Minister of War, Talaat, Minister of the Interior, and Jemal, Minister of the Marine (Hovanissian 15). The CUP spewed ultra-nationalistic culture which promoted the establishment of an exclusively Turkish state. It also promoted thoughts of conquering other regions inhabited by Turkic peoples, almost like our Manifest Destiny. When World War I broke out in August 1914, the Ottoman Empire formed part of the Triple Alliance with the other Central Powers, Germany and Austria-Hungary, and it declared war on Russia and its Western allies, Great Britain and France. The Ottoman armies initially suffered a string of defeats. Whether retreating or advancing, the Ottoman army used the occasion of war to wage a scam campaign of massacre against the civilian Armenian population in the regions in which warfare was rampant. These measures were part of the genocidal program secretly adopted by the CUP and implemented under the cover of war. They coincided with the CUP's larger program to eradicate the Armenians from Turkey and neighboring countries. Through the spring and summer of 1915, in all areas outside the war zones, the Armenian population was ordered deported from their homes. Convoys consisting of tens of thousands including men, women, and children were driven hundreds of miles toward the Syrian desert. In April of the young Turks convinced leaders of the Armenian population to meet to discuss the new orders for all

Saturday, February 22, 2020

Benefits of Walking Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Benefits of Walking - Essay Example Walking reduces weight by burning excessive calories in the body. For instance, a person who weighs sixty kilograms can burn up to seventy-five calories simply by walking for thirty minutes at 2mph. walking is therefore an exercise highly recommended for people who would like to lose weight. The faster an individual walks for a given time duration, the more calories are burned. Another health benefit of walking is that walking lowers the risk of getting certain diseases. Brisk walking for up to thirty minutes daily can help reduce the risks of getting diseases such as diabetes, high blood pressure, heart diseases, certain type of cancer and asthma among others. Doctors believe that walking improves blood circulation within the body therefore reducing the risks of getting diseases. In addition to lowering the risk of acquiring certain diseases and maintain good weight, walking gives an individual energy. Although it may seem a paradox, researchers have found out that brisk walking is an energizer. As an individual walks, blood circulation in the body is boosted which implies that oxygen supply in the body becomes sufficient thereby making one to feel energetic and alive. Walking also eases the muscle tension, strengthens joints and hence making an individual feel relaxed, and