Thursday, August 27, 2020
Question: Talk about the Law Of Business Organization And Their Case. Answer: The corporate lawful issues confronting Rio Tinto Limited in Australia As per area 180 of the Corporations Act 2001 it tends to be said that the chiefs and officials of an organization needs to practice their forces with due consideration and perseverance while releasing their obligations (Corporations Act, 2001). The obligation of the executive or the official would be evaluated from the perspective of a sensible individual. The activity of intensity by the chief or official of an organization would be viewed as without due consideration and tirelessness on the off chance that it is built up that a sensible man going about as an executive in his position would not have done likewise in the given condition. In any case, to evaluate a similar it is important to speculatively put a sensible individual in a similar situation as a chief. As indicated by subsection 180(2) it is fundamental the choice taken and the forces practiced by the executives or officials of an organization must be in accordance with some basic honesty. Any of the forces practiced by t he chief or officials of an organization can't be in personal circumstance of such executive and official. It is to be referenced that as per subsection 180(2d) of the previously mentioned act, powers practiced by the chief or official must be in the conviction that such exercise of intensity would be to the greatest advantage of the organization. For this situation the previous officials of the mining mammoth Rio Tinto, Tom Albanese and Guy Elliot have been accused of extortion by the U.S specialists (ABC News, 2018).They are blamed for not adhering to the bookkeeping guidelines and covering the misfortunes endured. It tends to be said that the previously mentioned parties hid from the financial specialists about the misfortune endured because of the ineffective arrangement which occurred under the watch of the previously mentioned parties. Along these lines it very well may be said that the corporate legitimate issues looked by the officials of Rio Tinto are inability to act with due consideration and steadily. It can likewise be said that they had not taken due consideration to act in compliance with common decency and didn't act to the greatest advantage of the organization. In this way they neglected to follow the arrangements expressed in segment 180 of the previously mentioned act. The gatherings have additionally been accused of extortion as expressed in segment 596 of the Corporations Act 2001. As indicated by this area an official will of an organization will be held to have submitted extortion on the off chance that he has acted in a manner to dupe the organization and loan bosses of the organization. In this manner the demonstration of hiding the misfortune endured t the financial specialists would establish misrepresentation. Roads open to the law specialists and Directors It is to be said that the administration body which is liable for overseeing the arrangements of the Corporations Act 2001, is the Australian Securities and Investment Commission. It tends to be said that the forces of the Australian Securities and Investment commission is administered by the Australian protections and Investment Commission Act. In this manner, regarding the picked case it very well may be said that the Australian Securities and Investment commission can be spoke to for infringement of the arrangements of Corporations Law by the executive and official of Rio Tinto as referenced previously. The Australian Securities and Investment Commission and the Australian Competition and Consumer Commission and the Australian Taxation Office have a wide scope of forces which incorporates directing examination to help the law authorization specialists with the proof (Shekhar Zheng, 2017). A portion of the Investigation forces of the previously mentioned bodies incorporate capacity to review the books of creation, the ability to cross examine an individual for getting important data, capacity to lead examination in the premises (Gilligan Bird, 2015). It is to be referenced that there are a few securities and benefits accessible to the organization and its chiefs. The organizations and the chiefs of the partnerships have the benefit of making guarantee over the documentation. It tends to be expressed that the in the reviews led by the previously mentioned Australian Security and Investment Commission, the official and the chief who is examined doesn't reserve the option to stay quiet. Anyway it very well may be referenced that the executives and officials of an organization are given insusceptibility which disallows the specialist from utilizing the appropriate responses acquired in common and criminal procedures. In the wake of leading the examination the controllers o f the examination may seek after law requirement as common and criminal procedures (Bainbridge, 2015). It very well may be noticed that Enforcement procedures by the previously mentioned bodies can incorporate issue of between time requests and order to freeze the advantages of the company. The directive request is by and large gave by the court at its watchfulness and the injunctive Relief can be gotten inside 24 hours of use for such order. A portion of the arrangements of the Corporations Act 2001 have application in extraterritorial areas. Subsequently, for this situation The US Securities and Exchange Commission can speak to the ASIC for directing an examination and can seek after requirement of common and criminal procedures against the previously mentioned parties. Important Case In the astounding case ASIC v Cassimatis (No 8)  FCA 1023 it was held that they had submitted Beach of Duty of care as per area 180(1) of the Corporations Act 2001. It tends to be expressed that Mr. what's more, Mrs. Cassimatis had begun a money related organizer called Storm Financial. They had built up a plan which included acquiring of cash from speculators. Be that as it may, the plan created by Cassimatis included control and disguising a portion of the arrangements of the plan which would cause the financial specialists to contribute more than they wished to for a time of at least 5 years. The procedure or the Scheme concocted by the respondent included getting gainst security, acquiring edge advance and utilizing the assets from the credit to put resources into record finance. The point of the procedure was to set up a money hold. It is to be expressed that Storm Financial had crumpled with a misfortune in speculation supports worth of three billion dollars. The vendor d iscovered that the previously mentioned money related organizer had no monetary limit of neither checking the obligations of the customers nor deal with their portfolios. The speculators of the previously mentioned money related organizer had not been hinted of the falling apart estimation of the ventures made by them. The report by the ASIC found that Mr. furthermore, Mrs. Cassimatis were basically answerable for the misfortune and breakdown of the organization. It was likewise discovered that Mr. Cassimatis and his significant other were paid $500,000 consistently. In the Cassimatis case, it was held by the Federal Court that Mr. what's more, Mrs. Cassimatis had penetrated the obligations of the executive as they neglected to keep the organization from confronting the misfortune which was inescapable. It was held that they had additionally neglected to give sensible venture exhortation to Storm Financial. The court had expressed that any sensible man acting in the situation of Mr. Cassimatis would have found a way to forestall the misfortune endured and would have understood that the activities of Storm Financial were penetrating the law. It was additionally held that the sensible man would have vital precautionary measures to forestall such misfortune. Equity Edelman further expressed in this am azing case he was dicey whether any break of obligation by a partnership is a basic necessity for penetrate of obligation by a chief. The ASIC is requesting: Emanuel Julie Cassimatis should take care of a punishment for penetrate of obligations as executives, both the gatherings ought to be precluded from going about as chiefs of any organization the gatherings ought not be permitted to hold permit of Australia Financial Service Reference List: ASIC v Cassimatis (No 8)  FCA 1023 Bainbridge, S. (2015).Corporate Law. West Academic. Partnerships Act 2001. (2018).Legislation.gov.au. Recovered 4 January 2018, from https://www.legislation.gov.au/Details/C2017C00328 Gilligan, G., Bird, H. L. (2015). Budgetary Services Misconduct and the Corporations Act 2001. Rio Tinto, previous executives deal with misrepresentation indictments over African coal misfortunes. (2018).ABC News. Recovered 4 January 2018, from https://www.abc.net.au/news/2017-10-18/rio-tinto-and-previous supervisors accused of misrepresentation over-mozambique-/9060898 Shekhar, C., Zheng, J. (2017). Corporate Fraud, Local Connections and Directors.
Saturday, August 22, 2020
BOEING - Assignment Example The Boeing Company has a long history going back to 1916, when the author of the organization, William Boeing propelled an organization Pacific Aero Products. The following year the organization was renamed to Boeing Airplane and Transportation (MarketLine Advantage, 6). In 1929, the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s name was changed again to United Aircraft and Transportation. At that point the organization has fundamentally extended its business activities and expanded into different business lines, (for example, airportÃ¢â¬â¢s upkeep and mail conveyance (MarketLine Advantage, 6). In 1934 the antitrust enactment confined responsibility for conveying carriers, and the organization has separated its business into three elements: United Aircraft (fabricating activities in the East of US), United Air Lines (air transportation) and the Boeing Airplane (producing tasks in the West of US) (MarketLine Advantage, 6). During the World War II, the Boeing Airplane Company focused on working of aircraft. Sinc e 1960Ã¢â¬â¢s the organization has extended its business essentially through various mergers and acquisitions, production of new divisions, and development of business tasks over the globe. These days, the organization serves clients in 150 nations over the globe and is perceived to be one of the biggest protection contractual workers in the USA and one of the two significant producers of 100+ singe planes for business purposes (MarketLine Advantage, 4). The Boeing Company serves a wide assortment of clients, among which are both government and business elements. A portion of the significant government clients of Boeing Company are: the US Air Force, the US Army, US DoD, US Navy, NASA, US Defense Logistics Agency Aviation, Israel Aircraft Industries, UK Ministry of Defense, European Aviation Safety Agency, US Federal Aviation Administration, and so forth. (MarketLine Advantage, 4). Basically all significant universal aircraft organizations use Boeing
Friday, August 21, 2020
Can Reusable and Recyclable Materials Save You Money (and the Environment) - OppLoans Can Reusable and Recyclable Materials Save You Money (and the Environment)? Can Reusable and Recyclable Materials Save You Money (and the Environment)?Saving through saving!First of all, let us establish something in the interest of comfortable human existence on the planet Earth: Individual choices will not be enough to stave off the worst effects of the damage human civilization has done to the environment. But making better individual choices certainly will not hurt â" and it wonât hurt your wallet either.Using reusables can not only make a small positive impact on the environment, and a much larger one if many people get on board, but it can also have an impact on your bank account. A positive impact, in fact.Not all environmentally-friendly products are created equally, however. With the right reusables, you can save a lot of money (and a little planet).Cups and bottlesAre you drinking enough water? The answer is no. We do not care how much water you are drinking, you should be drinking more. Also we are not doctors, so ignore that advice. But do pay attention to the following advice:âMy number one reusable that I wished more people knew about and used regularly is reusable water bottles and coffee cups,â suggests Kate Crowhurst, director of Money Bites. âMy stainless steel water bottle has saved me a few dollars from my budget with each refill. That is not a life changing amount of money, but it is money that could be better spent elsewhere in my budget.âMore reusable water bottles means fewer emissions in the production of new plastic water bottles, as well as fewer bottles in landfills and the oceans. Reusable coffee mugs or bottles have similar benefits, and you may be able to get a discount at your local coffee establishment if you bring your own container. If youâre a regular at Starbucks or your local brew house, that savings can add up over time.Grocery BagsMost supermarkets are filled with wasteful, single-use packaging. You can forego at least one of those instances on your way out, however.Reusable bags red uce waste, and are almost certainly sturdier than whatever disposable option the store provides. Much like some coffee shops, many supermarkets will offer a discount if you use g your own bag, and while it may not seem like much of a savings, the change can add up quickly.âSure, the small fee you save by not paying for plastic bags at the till is not much, but if you use 10 bags every time you get groceries, that is $0.50,â advises Bri Bell, registered dietitian at Frugal Minimalist Kitchen. âOver a year of weekly shopping, this adds up to more than $25.âAt least thatâs the savings where Bell lives. States like California and Hawaii tax even higher. In Honolulu, the tax is currently 15 cents per bag.Moving suppliesMoving is a real pain. Acquiring moving boxes is rarely the most stressful part of the process, but it would not hurt to get it out of the way by reusing boxes you already have coming to you from Amazon or other online deliveries. And it could save some money and a little Earth, as well.Matt Woodley, founder of MoverFocus.com recommends this stockpiling method. You are also doing the right thing environmentally by using reusable cartons and are saving from forking out on brand new moving boxes,â he says. âIf you plan your move early enough you really should not be spending a cent on packing materials.âAsking your moving company to help you out is another option. âYour moving company may even offer you free cartons on the basis that either you return them after your move or they collect them upon delivery.â he says.Reusables at the officeIf you want to make a slightly bigger difference and save money in your workspace, you can try to make a push for sustainability across the building.Certain universities across the country are building entire sustainable communities by reducing how they care for and stock their facilities. The University of Texas at Austin ((UT Austin) is one of them. The school uses compostable materials in both i ts restrooms and cafeterias to help cut down on waste, as mentioned in this article on waste reduction..Whether you are in charge or just care enough, you can make a change, even if the change is more incremental than UT Austinâs approach. Award-winning sustainability author Shel Horowitz advises businesses on how they can be more sustainable, starting with giving your two-week notice (sort-of):âAnnounce two weeks ahead that you are greening the company and are getting rid of disposable plates, cups, straws, and cutlery,â Horowitz says. âOffer to buy reusable metal or bamboo straws for any employee that wants one. â¦ Either supply branded company mugs (only if you have dishwashing equipment on-site) or encourage people to bring in their own distinctive mug that they can recognize instantly.âHe also recommends looking out for recycled materials when you go shopping for supplies.Youâre on the path to saving (both the planet and your dollars)Individual reusable use is not a silver bullet for the planet or your wallet. But it is one part of the much larger solutions to each of those problems.
Monday, May 25, 2020
The Victorian era has released some of the most well known books known to date. Based on their background and the time period they grew up, authors from the Victorian era had to mask their work within stories with characters who go on grand adventures or experiences a sense of freedom. This can be seen in two novels, AliceÃ¢â¬â¢s Adventures in Wonderland, written by Lewis Carroll, and The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, written by Robert Lewis Stevenson. The two books are a good representation of madness and how, in a way, the Victorian culture and expectation drove the main characters to go mad and their use of potions, pills and drugs. AliceÃ¢â¬â¢s Adventures in Wonderland, was a childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s book written by Lewis Carroll. The focus ofÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Whenever the queen is displeased it usually results in somebody getting their head cut off. This can be seen when Alice is put on trial in front of the queen and her court. The queens ruling results in Alice being guilty and becoming defiant to the queen. As a result the queen shouts, Ã¢â¬Å"off with her head!Ã¢â¬ (Carroll, 102). This represents Alice and her madness because as I stated earlier, this was all in AliceÃ¢â¬â¢s dream. Therefore the queen is a representation of what goes on in AliceÃ¢â¬â¢s head. She has that dark mental side to her nature. Another character that fall into madness is Dr. Jekyll from The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde. Dr. Jekyll is the representative of what the perfect Victorian man should act like. He has very high morals and conforms to society that way he does not get looked down upon. But on the flip side of that, he is human and has some flaws. Unlike AliceÃ¢â¬â¢s situation where we see her character slowly fall into madness, we are unaware that Dr. Jekyll is mad until the very end of the book when we discover that Mr. Hyde is Dr. Jekyll. Mr. Hyde represents Dr, JekyllÃ¢â¬â¢s dark and mental side. He is a very violent character. According Mr. Utterson, Mr. Hyde is a very evil character and draws on the mental dark side of Dr. Jekyll. A couple of the characters make remarks about Mr. Hyde calling him evil and said they thought he was mad. Take for example, Ã¢â¬Å"I thought it was madnessÃ¢â¬ ¦.Show MoreRelatedAll Of Sarah Kane s Cleansed 2245 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagesof key themes that continuously surface throughout the text, such as love, sex, human nature and torture and suffering. These subjects are most likely the reason that Cleansed was categorised In-Yer-Face theatre . In fact, all of Sarah Kane s plays were classed as work that fell under the In-Yer-Face Theatre genre. This theatre style came about in the mid-90s and had a very short lifespan; it existed as a pre-9/11 genre. Since the events of 9/11, like the world we live in, theatre hasRead MoreThe Studio System Essay14396 Words Ã |Ã 58 Pagescomplete control over design decisions, the personnel of the department, the assignment of tasks, and the attribution of credit. In the autocratic system that prevailed at MGM Gibbons had complete control. According to the director, Pandro S. Berman, He was the most influential person on the lot except for the owners, Nick Schenk in New York and Louis B. Mayer in Culver City (Affron 17). Gibbons was nominated for the Academy Award for Art Direction 40 times. He receivedRead MoreStephen P. Robbins Timothy A. Judge (2011) Organizational Behaviour 15th Edition New Jersey: Prentice Hall393164 Words Ã |Ã 1573 Pagesand permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. To obtain permission(s) to use material from this work, please submit a written request to Pearson Education, Inc., Permissions Department, One Lake Street, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458, or you may fax your request to 201-236-3290. Many of the designations by manufacturers
Thursday, May 14, 2020
In English grammar, a disjunct is a type of sentence adverb that comments on the content or manner of what is being said or written. Put another way, a disjunct is a word or phrase that explicitly expresses the stance of a speaker or writer. Also called a sentence adjunct or sentence modifier. Unlike adjuncts, which areÃ integrated into the structure of a sentence or clause, disjuncts stand outside the syntactic structure of the text they are commenting on. In effect, says David Crystal, disjuncts look down from above on a clause, making a judgment about what it is saying or how it is phrased (Making Sense of Grammar, 2004). As explained below, the two basic types of disjuncts are content disjuncts (also known as attitudinal disjuncts) and style disjuncts.Ã The term disjunct is sometimes also applied to any ofÃ two or more items connected by the disjunctive conjunction or. Etymology: From the Latin, to separate Examples and Observations Without a doubt, one of theÃ most popular and influential television showsÃ from the 1960s is the originalÃ Star TrekÃ series, created by Gene Roddenberry.(Kenneth Bachor, FiveÃ Things You Probably DidnÃ¢â¬â¢t Know About the OriginalÃ Star Trek. Time,Ã September 8, 2016)Strangely enough, they have a mind to till the soil, and the love of possessions is a disease in them.(Sitting Bull, Powder River Council Speech, 1875)Ã¢â¬Å"As weve discussed, the information you brought us has been, shall we say, a bit thin.Ã To be perfectly candid, my government feels as if were being played.Ã¢â¬ (Jeffrey S. Stephens, Targets of Opportunity, 2006)But sadly, one of the problems with being on public radio is that people tend to think youre being sincere all the time.(Ira Glass, quoted by Ana Marie Cox and Joanna Dionis in Mother Jones, September-October, 1998)Regrettably, the book is no longer in print, but copies can be found in libraries and secondhand bookshops.Ã¢â¬Å"Well, cou ld you sleep? the Count asked the next night upon his arrival in the cage.Ã¢â¬Å"Quite honestly, no, Westley replied in his normal voice.(William Goldman, The Princess Bride, 1973)Hopefully, the book will inspire readers to a wider interest in weather, atmospheric science, and earth science in general.(Keay Davidson, Twister. Pocket Books, 1996)Hopefully--and Other Commentary Disjuncts- Its time to admit that hopefully has joined that class of introductory words (like fortunately, frankly, happily, honestly, sadly, seriously, and others) that we use not to describe a verb, which is what adverbs usually do, but to describe our attitude toward the statement that follows. . . . But be aware that some sticklers still take a narrow view of hopefully. Will they ever join the crowd? One can only hope.(Patricia T. OConner, Woe Is I: The Grammarphobes Guide to Better English in Plain English, rev. ed. Riverhead Books, 2003)- Long before the controversial use of hopefully came along, it was p ossible to marshal words like happily, fortunately, foolishly, cleverly, in dual roles, as manner adverbs or disjuncts: He spent all his money foolishly or Foolishly, he spent all his money; He landed fortunately in a haystack or He landed in a haystack, fortunately; She did not weave all of the tapestry cleverly, Cleverly, she did not weave all of the tapestry. All the howling about hopefully, all the moralizing and execration, ignored the fact that a pattern of usage already existed, and that the hated word was merely taking up an available position. Other words of the same kind are currently being treated in the same way. One of them is regretfully, which is now being used as a commentary disjunct with the meaning It is to be regretted that . . . (Regretfully, we cannot serve early morning tea). This usage might be criticized on the grounds that we already have a perfectly adequate commentary disjunct in regrettably, and that there can be no good reason for pressing an impostor i nto service. Users, however, are stubbornly unanswerable to the gods of good reason.(Walter Nash, An Uncommon Tongue: The Uses and Resources of English. Routledge, 1992)Style Disjuncts and Content DisjunctsThere are two kinds of disjuncts: style disjuncts and content disjuncts. Style disjuncts express comments by speakers on the style or manner in which they are speaking: frankly as in Frankly, you have no chance of winning ( I am telling you this frankly); personally in Personally, Id have nothing to do with them; with respect in With respect, it is not up to you to decide; if I may say so in They are rather rude, if I may say so; because she told me so in She wont be there, because she told me so ( I know that because she told me so). Content disjuncts comment on the content of what is being said. The most common express degrees of certainty and doubt as to what is being said: perhaps in Perhaps you can help me; undoubtedly in Undoubtedly, she is the winner; obviously in Obviously , she has no wish to help us.(Sidney Greenbaum, Adverbial. The Oxford Companion to the English Language, ed. Tom McArthur, Oxford University Press, 1992)
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Writing is a mirror of ones personality. When we write, we reveal a part of ourselves. We reveal our mind. We reveal our thoughts. If it is possible to exist, then it is possible to write, because writing is thinking, and thoughts are existence. This especially holds true to the mind of Edgar Allan Poe, who through writing time and time again about his love and loss through both poetry and general prose, generates the story of his life. In these pieces, not only does he create original plots, but deep within the fabric of these plots springs a background world of Poes own life, deeper than any allegory he produces or any poem he completes. The dark corners of Poes mind are distinctly represented in his entire work body. Experiences,Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦It is very obvious what Poe wanted to convey in this poem. Poes wife, Virginia Clemm, contracted cholera at the time of the poems writing. It is widely believed that Poe is describing his wife in Annabel Lee. Virginia died of the disease later on, but the love the two shared, and perhaps still share today, remained. Furthermore, the general dreary twists and turns of Edgar Allan Poes life are directly involved in Poes stories, not just as details, but as fundamental inspiration set in stone. So is the case in his tragic story The Tell-Tale Heart written by Poe. The short story describes the murder of an old man at the hands of a younger man who was caring for him, his guilt after committing the deed, and finally his confession and the revealing of his insanity. How then does this mirror Poes physical life? It does by generalizing his life into a single short story. Poe never did go insane, but his life was filled with depressing events and Poe himself was depressed. Poes father left his family when Poe was two, his mother dying soon after. He was left with the Allan family, who brought him up well but he was somewhat of an outcast to the Allans. Poe was ridiculed in school and spent much of his li fe in poverty. The Tell-Tale Heart may not have much to do with any of that, but the depressing details of his life can beShow MoreRelatedEdgar Allan Poe Revlutionized Literature in the 19th Century665 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesEdgar Allan Poe revolutionized the literary world of the nineteenth century. Poe is a well-known author from the early 1800Ã¢â¬â¢s, who was part of the dark romanticism movement. While later in life he was a brilliant writer, Edgar Allan Poe faced many problems in his early life. Although Poe experienced death within his family at a young age, the hardships he encountered are thought to have influenced his dark writing style. These death inspired elements within PoeÃ¢â¬â¢s writing were ahead of their timeRead MoreAnalysis Of Edward Scissorhands, By Tim Burton1660 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesas the Frankenstein Monster, in the similar way that we call people with disabilities Special. And then we have Vincent, a short stop-motion animation. The short film itself is an entertaining aspect of a suburban boy named Vincent who recites Edgar Ellen Poe and categorizes with Horror film star, Vincent Price. With similarities to Edward Scissorhands, the main character is a chance for Tim Burton to represent himself on the screen as a tortured boy, outsider and artist. I am going to discuss how
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: Discuss about the Biggest Challenges Facing Cisco Systems. Answer: Introduction: Cisco Systems was founded in 1984 in California by a husband and wife team from Stanford University. The husband came up with a way of connecting two local area networks in the departments where he and his wife worked, which were 500 yards across campus. The company has acquired a number of companies and made several strategic partnerships that have catapulted it to one of the most successful companies in the world. Its first product was shipped in 1986 and was an AGS router. The company went public in 1990. It made its first acquisition in 1993. The company also launched Ethernet switch, which has over 25000 customers and 700000 installed all over the world (Cisco, 2017). Cisco is a multinational company as it produces different goods and services and supplies them to many companies. It has patents in different countries. However, the ownership remains in the host country, which is the USA. Cisco has fully-owned subsidiaries operating in other countries. Cisco has been able to do this in Asia and has made Singapore the headquarters and transferred advanced technology to them (Cisco, 2017). Cisco also has marketing superiority as a multinational and they have been able to be the world's best to network solutions provider. Cisco operates under high efficiency. They use high technology like cloud computing. Globalization of Business-Liberalism Theory The theory of liberalism sees globalization as the market-led expansion of modernization. Liberals emphasize why it is necessary to construct infrastructure in institutions to support globalization. This has led to technical standardization. Cisco Systems has standardized technology in all its Singapore branches. It has also enabled administrative harmonization. Cisco Systems has a very solid organization structure that has enabled this to happen (Pooja, 2014). There are also translation arrangements and the companys website can be translated to suit language needs. The supporters of this theory neglect the social forces that lie behind the creation of technological and institutional foundations. It is not a satisfaction to say that these developments are natural human drives that lead to economic growth and political liberalization (Pooja, 2014). There are structural authority disproportions in the promotion of globalization and shaping its course. Singapore is a strategic location for Cisco Systems in Asia as it has even located its Asian headquarters there. Economic factors in Singapore affect Ciscos Internationalization process. Singapores Strategic Location makes it convenient for Cisco Systems to access a very large market (Hawksford, 2017). The airport at Changi serves over 15 million passengers yearly. It has been classified as the best airport in the world for over 20 years. This provides businesses like Cisco Systems with easy access to all the major Asian markets. Singapore has a good business environment hence attracting a lot of companies and businesspersons. Cisco systems have therefore been able to set up business easily in Singapore and gain from the good business environment (Hawksford, 2017). Singapore has an outstanding tax system. The corporate and personal rates are low. The country follows a single tier tax policy (Ambashi, 2017). Due to this Cisco Systems is able to maximize profits, as taxes charged are reasonable. The country is a one-stop center for companies that seek to manage their Intellectual Property Assets. Singapore is a party to major intellectual property treaties like the world intellectual property organization and the Madrid protocol (Hawksford, 2017). Cisco Systems have been able to take advantage of this by registering their trademark and being able to protect their Intellectual Property. Singapore has ensured that its labor force is highly attractive and productive; Businesses are therefore able to get efficiency as they get excellent workers. This has enabled Cisco Systems to acquire a highly motivated and productive workforce (Hawksford, 2017). This has greatly contributed to the performance of the company, as the workforce is highly skilled hence, processes run smoothly and effectively Porters Diamond Theory applied to Cisco Systems The Porter Diamond Theory is designed to help us get an understanding of competitive advantage that nations possess because of the factors that are available to them. It also explains how governments are able to act as catalysts to improve the position of a country in a globally competitive environment. The theory gives suggestions that a country can create factor advantages for itself such as having skilled labour, having strong technology industry and ensuring support of the government in the economy (Macklon, 2015). The theory is represented by a figure that resembles four diamond points. These points are related determinants, which are theorized as deciding factors of a countrys comparative economic benefits (Macklin, 2015). These factors include; the strategy of a firm, structure and rivalry, supporting industries, demand and factor conditions. The strategy of the firm, its structure and rivalry refer to the aspect that competition results in companies that strive in getting ways to add production and to come up with technological innovations. Competition has made Cisco come up with great technological innovations that have given it a technological advantage (Macklon, 2015). The company has come up with cloud solutions, Internet of things and software defined networking. Related supporting industries in the model give reference to companies that facilitate innovation through exchanging ideas with companies in the same industry Cisco Systems has been able to innovate through exchanging ideas with companies like UBS (Macklon, 2015). In March 2017, UBS and Cisco to hosted a tech talk on Internet of Things and applications. The company also formed a partnership with The Infocomm Development Authority of Singapore. Demand conditions refer to the characteristics of the customer base in terms of products and this enables innovation and improvement on products (Macklon, 2015). Cisco Systems has been able to achieve this by coming up with products that fit into customer needs and trends. Foreign companies can use various strategies to enter into foreign markets. Firms can export indirectly by using domestic agents in those countries who will be paid commissions to sell products or services (Chand, 2014). They can also employ the distribution services of companies that already exist in the respective markets and have established distribution systems. The company can do direct exportation of products or services. The company will have to do marketing analysis, establish contracts, handles supply-chain issues and documentation (CaligiuriBonache, 2016). The company assigns distributors based in the country as they have the necessary resources. In Licensing, a foreign licensor gives a local licensee with access to the entire infrastructure that the company needs in exchange for compensation. The firm licensed is given exclusive rights for producing and marketing a product or service for a certain period. The licensor gets a royalty on the product or service sale (Jain Singal, 2014). This method is advantageous as the firm is able to enter a new market without too many investments. Franchising can occur via product/ trade name or business format. It involves a licensing agreement where services offered by the franchise are replicated in the foreign country through a franchise (Zhao, ParkZhou, 2014).A joint venture is when the multi-national enters into an agreement with a local company in the target country. It can either be contractual or equity. In a contractual agreement, the two companies get into a partnership to share the cost of investment, any risk factors and profits. An equity venture involves the formation of a very separate entity and the local and multinational company share ownership and control. This may happen due to complex legal procedures in the foreign country and it greatly reduces the risk for the multi-national company (MarinorMarinora, 2014). The advantage of this is that the local company knows the market well and regulations. Direct investment involves a firm entering the foreign market through investing in a manufacturing facility. The company has to commit capital and management and can acquire an already existing foreign facility or build a completely new one (Chand, 2014). Direct investment is the best option but very risky as in case the venture does not succeed the company loses many funds. How Cisco Entered Singapore Market Cisco entered the Singapore market through direct investment in 1994 through its wholly owned subsidiaries, Cisco Systems International B.V. and Cisco International Limited that distribute its products. They have introduced leading technologies over the years and have transformed how the citizens work and learn. It created Singapores first internet home in the year 2000.The company also developed strategic partnerships. They collaborated with 15 schools through Cisco networking Academy and trained over 46000 students (Cisco, 2013). The company also opened new regional headquarters in Singapore in 2014.The office is located in the vibrant Changi Business Park and houses over 1000 employees. The second one is through joint ventures. Cisco formed an alliance with Singtel in 2001 to market and develop advanced technological services for the region. This was the first strategic partnership between a local carrier and an equipment vendor. The companies marketed products and services together to key customer accounts. This brought several telecommunications services to Singapore, for example, the companies developed IP and Virtual Private Networks together, DSL technology was introduced and new networks that integrated voice, data and video (Cisco,2013). The companies also carried out an exchange program where they briefed each other on product and technological directions. The Engineers working for SingTel were also able to gain work experience in Ciscos technical assistance centers. This venture was key to Cisco as SingTel had a large presence in more than 19 countries in the Asian region. (Singapore business review, 2013). International Business Challenges Faced by Cisco Systems Cisco Systems faces various challenges when doing International Business. The first risk faced by Cisco Systems is a political risk. This can include challenges in regulatory programs. Governments keep changing laws and this can greatly affect business (Verbeke, KanoYuan, 2016). Another business challenge is financial limitations. The economic environment keeps changing hence affecting revenues (Delventhal, 2017). Already there is a prediction in falls on revenues for 2017.The orders from service providers have slumped and there is a decline in the traditional switching market. Another challenge being faced by Cisco is competitive concerns. It faces the competition of switches and routers. The company has however been losing customers to rivals like Huawei Technologies. Their market for switching has gone down from 58% to 56.8% and the router market went down from 48.8% to 44.8%.This is a great concern as in previous years routers and switchers have accounted for half of its revenue (Sun,2016). The company also faces technological challenges. There is a rise in cloud networking that relies mostly on software. These are cost-efficient than the ones that were based on hardware. Cisco still sells traditional equipment and this has hurt demand. The company has been overtaken by Arista Networks who achieved a double-digit growth due to the sale of software cloud networking (Sun, 2016). Cisco then placed a lawsuit on Arista to slow them down and resulting in them being banned from importing some products. Cisco Systems need to incorporate the global compact principle and sustainable development goals into their strategies so that they uphold their responsibility to people and the environment to enable long-term success. The first principle states that companies must support and respect human rights protection. Cisco Systems must ensure that it respects the human rights of its employees and the society as a whole. The second Principle is making sure that the company does not take part in human rights abuses (Unglobalcompact, 2015). Cisco must ensure that all employees have rights and they should not also partner with any company that abuses human rights as this will lead to reputational risk and affects business negatively. The third principle advice companies to uphold freedom of association and recognize the right to collective bargaining. Cisco Systems must ensure that it allows its staff to join unions and that they representation by unions. The fourth principle speaks about the elimination of any forced labor (Unglobalcompact, 2015). Cisco Systems must not engage in any forced Labour. The fifth principle talks about child labor being abolished. The company should not engage in any form of child labor. The sixth principle advocates for eliminating discrimination in respect to employment or occupation. Cisco systems must ensure that it develops a corporate culture that brings all stakeholders together and does not discriminate in any way. The seventh principle speaks about companies taking a precautionary approach to any challenges faced in the environment (Unglobalcompact, 2015). Cisco Systems must approach such challenges in a professional manner and should ensure that its business does not harm the environment and they should have responsible recycling or disposal methods. Principle number eight speaks about companies undertaking initiatives to improve greater environmental responsibility. Employees at Cisco should, therefore, be educated on this and the company should generally be responsible towards the environment. The ninth principle encourages environmental friendly technologies. When expanding and applying technology to its business, they have to ensure that, they are not harming the environment (Unglobalcompact, 2015). The tenth principle advocates for companies to work against corruption. Cisco systems must ensure integrity among employees and when dealing with customers. The company must maintain a high integrity. Under the sustainable development goals, Cisco Systems will also have to apply some principles to its business. Under the Poverty goal, it states that companies should respect the rights of its workers and apply innovation to provide solutions to eradicate poverty (Unglobalcompact, 2015). Cisco Systems can implement this by ensuring they serve communities affected by poverty well through coming up with products and services that serve them. Another sustainability goal is Gender Equality. Companies are encouraged to empower women. Cisco Systems gives equal opportunities to both men and women. Affordable and clean energy should also be a key priority for businesses. Cisco System should be responsible in terms of any remittances (Unglobalcompact, 2015). Decent work and economic growth is another goal. Cisco Systems should provide its employees with decent work and ensure Singapores economic growth through its business activities. The company also has various green initiatives. Responsible Production and consumption by companies are key (Unglobalcompact, 2015). Cisco Systems has a power down system and phones are switched off after working hours and over the weekends. There is minimal paper wastage. Another SDG is Climate Action. Companies must ensure responsibility in greenhouse emissions as it greatly affects the climate. Cisco Systems must strive to ensure that it implements solutions so climate change (Unglobalcompact, 2015). Life below water and Life on Land should also be cared for. Cisco systems must ensure that nothing is done to harm these lives. 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